Timeline of Anglo Saxon England 899 AD-977 AD
THE GREAT ARMY RETURNS
892 –985 renewed Danish attack on SE England, but Aelfred has reorganised his kingdom and prepared defences. The Danes are easily contained, being forced to abandon a fleet on the River Lea when Aelfred builds a blocking bridge and two forts to defend it.
899 - Death of King Alfred the Great of Wessex & All England. He is
succeeded by his son, Edward.
901 - KingEdward the Elder of Wessex takes the title "King of the
Angles and Saxons". His mother, Dowager-Queen Ealhswith, founds the
Nunnaminster at Winchester and retires into a religious life there.
Death of King Aethelstan (alias Guthrum) of East Anglia. He is
succeeded by his son, Eric.
902 - The Norsemen are expelled from Dublin. After a brief foray
into Seisyllwg, a group, under one Ingimund, settle in the Wirral
with the agreement of Lady Aethelflaed of the Mercians.
905 - The Norse settler, Ingimund, and his men revolt against the
Mercians and try to take the city of Chester. They are beaten off.
907 - Lady Aethelflaed of the Mercians refortifies Chester against
Viking attacks. King Edward the Elder of England founds Romsey
Abbey. Ealdorman Aethelmar founds Cerne Abbey on the site of the
hermitage of St. Edwold.
909 - Death of Bishop Asser of Sherborne. The See is divided and the
new Bishoprics created at Wells, Crediton and Ramsbury & Sonning.
King Edward the Elder of England and his sister, Princess
Aethelflaed of Mercia, raid Danish East Anglia and bring back the
body of St. Oswald in triumph. Aethelflaed presents it to her
foundation in Gloucester.
910 - King Edward the Elder of England attacks the Joint-Kings
Halfdan II, Eowils and Ragnarson of Norse York. All three monarchs are killed at the Battle of Tettenhall and their kingdom crippled.
Ragnall I Ivarrson, grandson of Ivarr the Boneless, seizes the
throne of Jorvik after years of roaming the Western Seas.
911 - Death of Lord Aethelred II of the Mercians. He is buried in
St. Oswald's Priory, Gloucester and is succeeded by his wife,
Princess Aethelflaed of Wessex, as Lady of the Mercians. Her
brother, King Edward the Elder of England insists on taking control
of London and Oxford. Rollo is granted Normandy by the King of France, on condition that he defend the lower Seine River against other Vikings.
912 - The increasing thread of Viking invasions encourages Lady
Aethelflaed of the Mercians to expand her policy of building
defensive burghs within her kingdom.
RECONQUEST OF THE DANELAW
913 - King Edward the Elder of England recaptures Essex from the
Danes. Death of High-Reeve Eadulf of Bamburgh. He is succeeded by
his son, Ealdred I, who is almost immediately driven out by King
Ragnall I Ivarrson of Norse York. Ealdred flees to the Court of King
Constantine II of Alba.
914 - High-Reeve Ealdred I of Bamburgh persuades King Constantine II
of Alba to invade Norse controlled Bernicia in an attempt to restore
his position. The Vikings defeat the Scots at the First Battle of
Corbridge. Other Vikings harry the Welsh Coast and move up the
Severn. They capture Bishop Cyfeilliog of Ergyng, but are driven out
by Mercian levies from Hereford and Gloucester.
c.915 - The body of St. Edmund of East Anglia is transferred to Bury
916 - English raiders attack the court of King Tewdr of Brycheiniog
at Llangorse and make off with the Queen and thirty-three of her
917 - Lady Aethelflaed of the Mercians cements an alliance with
Kings Constantine II of Alba and Constantine mac Aed of Strathclyde
against Norse York. She captures the city of Derby, while her
brother, King Edward the Elder of England, takes Towcester.
Aethelflaed's armies also ravage Brycheiniog in revenge for the
killing of the, now unknown, Abbot Ecgberht.
918 - Death of King Eric of East Anglia. East Anglia brought under
Wessex rule. High-Reeve Ealdred I of Bamburgh again persuades King
Constantine II of Alba to help him reclaim his position in Bernicia.
They mount a second invasion of his now Norse controlled lands. The
Vikings defeat the Scots again at the Second Battle of Corbridge,
but take heavy casualties themselves. Ealdred probably manages to
retake most of Northern Bernicia. Lady Aethelflaed of the Mercians
begins to intrigue with diaffected factions within the Norse Kingdom
of York and peacefully overruns the Borough of Leicester. Her
brother, King Edward the Elder of England, takes Stamford by force.
King Idwal Foel of Gwynedd and King Hywel Dda and Prince Clydog of
Deheubarth submit to the overlordship of King Edward. Death of Lady
Aethelflaed of the Mercians at Tamworth. She is buried in St.
Oswald's Priory in Gloucester and nominally succeeded by her
daughter, the twenty year old Princess Aelfwynn.
919 - Lady Aelfwynn of the Mercians is brought to the court of her
maternal uncle, King Edward the Elder of England, and deprived of
her authority in Mercia. King Edward formally annexes the country.
The end of independent Mercian rule.
920 - High-Reeve Ealdred I of Bamburgh and his brother, Uhtred,
submit to the overlordship of King Edward the Elder of England.
Death of King Ragnall I Ivarrson of Norse York. He is succeeded by
his brother, King Sigtrygg Caech of Norse Dublin.
924 - Death of King Edward the Elder of England at Farndon-upon-Dee.
He is succeeded by his son,Athelstan, who becomes King of Wessex
and effective ruler of most of England. His appointment is opposed
by one Alfred of unknown origin.
c.924 - St. Eadburga, daughter of King Edward the Elder of England,
enters the Nunnaminster at Winchester, at an extremely young age.
925 - King Athelstan is finally crowned at Kingston-on-Thames. He
founds Bury St. Edmunds Abbey around the shrine of St. Edmund of
926 - Athelstan annexes Northumbria, and forces the kings of Wales,
Strathclyde, the Picts, and the Scots to submit to him
927 - The border between England and Wales is set at the River Wye
when Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth and Owain of Glywysing & Gwent
submit to the overlordship of King Athelstan of England at Hereford.
Death of King Sigtrygg Caech of Norse York. King Athelstan of
England claims his kingdom and receives the submission of High-Reeve
Ealdred I of Bamburgh. Practicalities probably actually meant that
ealdred looked more towards King Constantine II of Alba as his
930 - Death of High-Reeve Ealdred I of Bamburgh. He is succeeded by
his son, Osulf. High-Reeve Osulf attests a number of Wessex charters
during his reign showing his close association with the English
931 - Kings Morgan Hen of Glywysing & Gwent, Hywel Dda of Deheubarth
and Idwal Foel of Gwynedd submit to the overlordship of King
Athelstan of England and attend him at court.
933 - Prince Aelfweard, brother of King Athelstan of England, is
drowned en route to France and buried at Saint-Bertin.
934 - King Tewdr of Brycheiniog attends the court of King Athelstan
of England and signs English Land Charters. Kings Hywel Dda of
Deheubarth, Idwal Foel of Gwynedd and Morgan Mwynfawr of Morgannwg
are compelled to accompany Athelstan on his campaign against King
Constantine II of Alba.
937 - Battle of Brunanburh: Athelstan defeats alliance of Scots,
Strathclyde Britons and Vikings, and takes the title of "King of all
c.937 - King Idwal Foel of Gwynedd distances himself from his
939 - King Athelstan founds Muchelney Abbey. Death of King Athelstan
at Gloucester. He is buried at Malmesbury Abbey and succeeded by his
half-brother, Edmund the Magnificent.
942 - Kings Idwal Foel of Gwynedd openly rebels against the
overlordship of the English monarchy. Both he and Llewelyn of Powys
are killed fighting English armies.
945 - St. Dunstan becomes Abbot of Glastonbury.
946 - Edred, younger brother of Edmund, King of England (to 955);
Dunstan is named his chief minister.
949 - King Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Gwynedd & Powys attends the
court of King Eadred of England.
954 - Death of King Eric Bloodaxe of NorseJorvik(York). King Eadred of
Wessex becomes King of All England. High-Reeve Osulf of Bamburgh is
appointed Ealdorman of Northumbria.
955 - Kings Iago of Gwynedd, Owain of Deheubarth and Morgan Hen of
Glywysing & Gwent attend the court of King Eadred of England. Edwy,
son of Edmund, King of England (to 959).
c.955 - Archbishop Oda of Canterbury rebuilds Canterbury Cathedral.
956 - St. Dunstan is sent into exile by King Edwy.
957 - Mercians and Northumbrians rebel against King Edwy.
959 -Edgar the Peaceful, younger brother of Edwy, King of England
960 - Death of Princess Eadburga, aunt of King Edgar the Peaceable
of England, at the Nunnaminster in Winchester where is as a nun. She
is buried there and later revered as a saint.
961 - Tavistock Abbey is founded by Ealdorman Ordgar of Devon.
963 - Death of Ealdorman Osulf of Northumbria. He is succeeded by
his son, Waltheof I. Death of Bishop Brihthelm of Winchester. He is
succeeded by St. Aethelwold, Abbot of Abingdon.
964 - Foundation of Milton Abbey.
966 - Re-foundation of Peterborough (Medshamstead) Abbey as a
Benedictine Monastery by Bishop Aethelwold of Winchester.
967 - Re- foundation of Romsey Abbey by King Edgar of England and
Ealdorman Aethelwold of Wessex, with St. Merewenna as Abbess.
969 - Foundation of Ramsey Abbey.
970 - Re-foundation of Pershore Abbey. It acquires relics of St.
Eadburga from Winchester.
971 - St. Aethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, instigates massive
building operations at Winchester. He extends the Old Minster
westward with two enormous apses and a crossing tower to cover St.
Swithun's external tomb and make it the centre of a 'shrine-church'.
It supposedly rains there for "forty days and forty nights".
Foundation of Crowland Abbey.
UNITY AGAIN UNDER EDGAR
973 - After his coronation, King Edgar of England marches his army
north to Chester. His navy meets him there via the Irish Sea. This
show of strength persuades the Northern Kings to submit to his
overlordship. Legend says he is rowed across the Dee by Kings
Kenneth of Alba, Malcolm of the Cumbrians, Magnus of Man & the
Isles, Donald of Strathclyde, Iago of Gwynedd, Princes Hywel of
Gwynedd, Ithel and Siferth (the latter two of unknown origin). The
Council of Winchester calls for English monastic reform and draws up
a code of practice known as the Regularis Concordia. Foundation of
974 - King Edgar gives English help to Prince Hywel in ousting his
uncle, King Iago of Gwynedd from his kingdom. The tomb of St.
Swithun is opened at Winchester Old Minster and his body
dismembered. His head shrine is placed in the sacristy and his major
shrine behind the high altar.
975 -Edward the Martyr, son of Edgar, King of England (to 978).
c.977 - St. Aethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, rebuilds the western
end of Winchester Old Minster, with twin towers and no apses.