Timeline of Anglo Saxon England 899 AD-977 AD

 

 

 

THE GREAT ARMY RETURNS

892 985 renewed Danish attack on SE England, but Aelfred has reorganised his kingdom and prepared defences. The Danes are easily contained, being forced to abandon a fleet on the River Lea when Aelfred builds a blocking bridge and two forts to defend it.

899 - Death of King Alfred the Great of Wessex & All England. He is

succeeded by his son, Edward.

901 - King Edward the Elder of Wessex takes the title "King of the

Angles and Saxons". His mother, Dowager-Queen Ealhswith, founds the

Nunnaminster at Winchester and retires into a religious life there.

Death of King Aethelstan (alias Guthrum) of East Anglia. He is

succeeded by his son, Eric.

902 - The Norsemen are expelled from Dublin. After a brief foray

into Seisyllwg, a group, under one Ingimund, settle in the Wirral

with the agreement of Lady Aethelflaed of the Mercians.

905 - The Norse settler, Ingimund, and his men revolt against the

Mercians and try to take the city of Chester. They are beaten off.

907 - Lady Aethelflaed of the Mercians refortifies Chester against

Viking attacks. King Edward the Elder of England founds Romsey

Abbey. Ealdorman Aethelmar founds Cerne Abbey on the site of the

hermitage of St. Edwold.

909 - Death of Bishop Asser of Sherborne. The See is divided and the

new Bishoprics created at Wells, Crediton and Ramsbury & Sonning.

King Edward the Elder of England and his sister, Princess

Aethelflaed of Mercia, raid Danish East Anglia and bring back the

body of St. Oswald in triumph. Aethelflaed presents it to her

foundation in Gloucester.

910 - King Edward the Elder of England attacks the Joint-Kings

Halfdan II, Eowils and Ragnarson of Norse York. All three monarchs are killed at the Battle of Tettenhall and their kingdom crippled.

Ragnall I Ivarrson, grandson of Ivarr the Boneless, seizes the

throne of Jorvik after years of roaming the Western Seas.

911 - Death of Lord Aethelred II of the Mercians. He is buried in

St. Oswald's Priory, Gloucester and is succeeded by his wife,

Princess Aethelflaed of Wessex, as Lady of the Mercians. Her

brother, King Edward the Elder of England insists on taking control

of London and Oxford. Rollo is granted Normandy by the King of France, on condition that he defend the lower Seine River against other Vikings.

912 - The increasing thread of Viking invasions encourages Lady

Aethelflaed of the Mercians to expand her policy of building

defensive burghs within her kingdom.

RECONQUEST OF THE DANELAW

913 - King Edward the Elder of England recaptures Essex from the

Danes. Death of High-Reeve Eadulf of Bamburgh. He is succeeded by

his son, Ealdred I, who is almost immediately driven out by King

Ragnall I Ivarrson of Norse York. Ealdred flees to the Court of King

Constantine II of Alba.

914 - High-Reeve Ealdred I of Bamburgh persuades King Constantine II

of Alba to invade Norse controlled Bernicia in an attempt to restore

his position. The Vikings defeat the Scots at the First Battle of

Corbridge. Other Vikings harry the Welsh Coast and move up the

Severn. They capture Bishop Cyfeilliog of Ergyng, but are driven out

by Mercian levies from Hereford and Gloucester.

c.915 - The body of St. Edmund of East Anglia is transferred to Bury

St. Edmunds.

916 - English raiders attack the court of King Tewdr of Brycheiniog

at Llangorse and make off with the Queen and thirty-three of her

courtiers.

917 - Lady Aethelflaed of the Mercians cements an alliance with

Kings Constantine II of Alba and Constantine mac Aed of Strathclyde

against Norse York. She captures the city of Derby, while her

brother, King Edward the Elder of England, takes Towcester.

Aethelflaed's armies also ravage Brycheiniog in revenge for the

killing of the, now unknown, Abbot Ecgberht.

918 - Death of King Eric of East Anglia. East Anglia brought under

Wessex rule. High-Reeve Ealdred I of Bamburgh again persuades King

Constantine II of Alba to help him reclaim his position in Bernicia.

They mount a second invasion of his now Norse controlled lands. The

Vikings defeat the Scots again at the Second Battle of Corbridge,

but take heavy casualties themselves. Ealdred probably manages to

retake most of Northern Bernicia. Lady Aethelflaed of the Mercians

begins to intrigue with diaffected factions within the Norse Kingdom

of York and peacefully overruns the Borough of Leicester. Her

brother, King Edward the Elder of England, takes Stamford by force.

King Idwal Foel of Gwynedd and King Hywel Dda and Prince Clydog of

Deheubarth submit to the overlordship of King Edward. Death of Lady

Aethelflaed of the Mercians at Tamworth. She is buried in St.

Oswald's Priory in Gloucester and nominally succeeded by her

daughter, the twenty year old Princess Aelfwynn.

919 - Lady Aelfwynn of the Mercians is brought to the court of her

maternal uncle, King Edward the Elder of England, and deprived of

her authority in Mercia. King Edward formally annexes the country.

The end of independent Mercian rule.

920 - High-Reeve Ealdred I of Bamburgh and his brother, Uhtred,

submit to the overlordship of King Edward the Elder of England.

Death of King Ragnall I Ivarrson of Norse York. He is succeeded by

his brother, King Sigtrygg Caech of Norse Dublin.

924 - Death of King Edward the Elder of England at Farndon-upon-Dee.

He is succeeded by his son, Athelstan, who becomes King of Wessex

and effective ruler of most of England. His appointment is opposed

by one Alfred of unknown origin.

c.924 - St. Eadburga, daughter of King Edward the Elder of England,

enters the Nunnaminster at Winchester, at an extremely young age.

925 - King Athelstan is finally crowned at Kingston-on-Thames. He

founds Bury St. Edmunds Abbey around the shrine of St. Edmund of

East Anglia.

ENGLAND RE-UNITED

926 - Athelstan annexes Northumbria, and forces the kings of Wales,

Strathclyde, the Picts, and the Scots to submit to him

927 - The border between England and Wales is set at the River Wye

when Kings Hywel Dda of Deheubarth and Owain of Glywysing & Gwent

submit to the overlordship of King Athelstan of England at Hereford.

Death of King Sigtrygg Caech of Norse York. King Athelstan of

England claims his kingdom and receives the submission of High-Reeve

Ealdred I of Bamburgh. Practicalities probably actually meant that

ealdred looked more towards King Constantine II of Alba as his

overlord.

930 - Death of High-Reeve Ealdred I of Bamburgh. He is succeeded by

his son, Osulf. High-Reeve Osulf attests a number of Wessex charters

during his reign showing his close association with the English

Court.

931 - Kings Morgan Hen of Glywysing & Gwent, Hywel Dda of Deheubarth

and Idwal Foel of Gwynedd submit to the overlordship of King

Athelstan of England and attend him at court.

933 - Prince Aelfweard, brother of King Athelstan of England, is

drowned en route to France and buried at Saint-Bertin.

934 - King Tewdr of Brycheiniog attends the court of King Athelstan

of England and signs English Land Charters. Kings Hywel Dda of

Deheubarth, Idwal Foel of Gwynedd and Morgan Mwynfawr of Morgannwg

are compelled to accompany Athelstan on his campaign against King

Constantine II of Alba.

937 - Battle of Brunanburh: Athelstan defeats alliance of Scots,

Strathclyde Britons and Vikings, and takes the title of "King of all

Britain"

c.937 - King Idwal Foel of Gwynedd distances himself from his

English overlord.

939 - King Athelstan founds Muchelney Abbey. Death of King Athelstan

at Gloucester. He is buried at Malmesbury Abbey and succeeded by his

half-brother, Edmund the Magnificent.

942 - Kings Idwal Foel of Gwynedd openly rebels against the

overlordship of the English monarchy. Both he and Llewelyn of Powys

are killed fighting English armies.

945 - St. Dunstan becomes Abbot of Glastonbury.

946 - Edred, younger brother of Edmund, King of England (to 955);

Dunstan is named his chief minister.

949 - King Hywel Dda of Deheubarth, Gwynedd & Powys attends the

court of King Eadred of England.

954 - Death of King Eric Bloodaxe of Norse Jorvik(York). King Eadred of

Wessex becomes King of All England. High-Reeve Osulf of Bamburgh is

appointed Ealdorman of Northumbria.

955 - Kings Iago of Gwynedd, Owain of Deheubarth and Morgan Hen of

Glywysing & Gwent attend the court of King Eadred of England. Edwy,

son of Edmund, King of England (to 959).

c.955 - Archbishop Oda of Canterbury rebuilds Canterbury Cathedral.

956 - St. Dunstan is sent into exile by King Edwy.

REBELLION

957 - Mercians and Northumbrians rebel against King Edwy.

959 - Edgar the Peaceful, younger brother of Edwy, King of England

(to 975).

960 - Death of Princess Eadburga, aunt of King Edgar the Peaceable

of England, at the Nunnaminster in Winchester where is as a nun. She

is buried there and later revered as a saint.

961 - Tavistock Abbey is founded by Ealdorman Ordgar of Devon.

963 - Death of Ealdorman Osulf of Northumbria. He is succeeded by

his son, Waltheof I. Death of Bishop Brihthelm of Winchester. He is

succeeded by St. Aethelwold, Abbot of Abingdon.

964 - Foundation of Milton Abbey.

966 - Re-foundation of Peterborough (Medshamstead) Abbey as a

Benedictine Monastery by Bishop Aethelwold of Winchester.

967 - Re- foundation of Romsey Abbey by King Edgar of England and

Ealdorman Aethelwold of Wessex, with St. Merewenna as Abbess.

969 - Foundation of Ramsey Abbey.

970 - Re-foundation of Pershore Abbey. It acquires relics of St.

Eadburga from Winchester.

971 - St. Aethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, instigates massive

building operations at Winchester. He extends the Old Minster

westward with two enormous apses and a crossing tower to cover St.

Swithun's external tomb and make it the centre of a 'shrine-church'.

It supposedly rains there for "forty days and forty nights".

Foundation of Crowland Abbey.

UNITY AGAIN UNDER EDGAR

973 - After his coronation, King Edgar of England marches his army

north to Chester. His navy meets him there via the Irish Sea. This

show of strength persuades the Northern Kings to submit to his

overlordship. Legend says he is rowed across the Dee by Kings

Kenneth of Alba, Malcolm of the Cumbrians, Magnus of Man & the

Isles, Donald of Strathclyde, Iago of Gwynedd, Princes Hywel of

Gwynedd, Ithel and Siferth (the latter two of unknown origin). The

Council of Winchester calls for English monastic reform and draws up

a code of practice known as the Regularis Concordia. Foundation of

Thorney Abbey.

974 - King Edgar gives English help to Prince Hywel in ousting his

uncle, King Iago of Gwynedd from his kingdom. The tomb of St.

Swithun is opened at Winchester Old Minster and his body

dismembered. His head shrine is placed in the sacristy and his major

shrine behind the high altar.

975 - Edward the Martyr, son of Edgar, King of England (to 978).

c.977 - St. Aethelwold, Bishop of Winchester, rebuilds the western

end of Winchester Old Minster, with twin towers and no apses.